Recently, the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) issued a final rule adding six recently developed or in-development technologies to BIS’s Export Administration Regulations (EAR) Commerce Control List (CCL). The U.S. Department of Commerce said in a statement on its official website that the move is to support the national strategy for critical and emerging technologies.
Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said, “The National Strategy for Critical and Emerging Technologies is an important strategic deployment to protect U.S. national security and ensure U.S. technological leadership in military, intelligence, and economic affairs. The U.S. Department of Commerce has There are controls on the export of more than 30 emerging technologies, and we will continue to assess and determine which technologies need to be regulated in the future.”
It is reported that the six emerging technologies currently listed on the commercial control list are as follows:
1.Hybrid Additive Manufacturing / CNC Tools
2.Computational lithography software for making EUV masks
3.Technology used to produce finished chips for 5nm
4.Digital forensic analysis tools that circumvent authentication or authorization controls on a computer and extract raw data
5.Software for monitoring and analysis of communications and metadata obtained from telecommunication service providers via transit interfaces
Chip-related technologies bear the brunt
It is not difficult to find that among the six major technologies that the United States implements export controls, chip-related technologies bear the brunt, including “computing lithography software for manufacturing extreme ultraviolet masks” and “technology for producing finished chips for 5nm”. .
Specifically, the two major chip technologies under US export control are closely related to lithography, the most important equipment in chip manufacturing. Especially, 5nm chips have become mainstream products in the high-end chip era. The importance of EUV lithography can be imagined. Know.
Among them, “Computational Lithography Software for the Fabrication of EUV Masks” covers specific software required for EUV lithography, including three-dimensional (3D) effects, mask shadow effects, illumination direction effects, long-distance glare effects, proximity effects, random effects in resist, and source mask optimization software necessary to create optimized photoresist patterns on wafers;
While “Technology for the Production of Finished Chips for 5nm” is intended to be applied to wafers for 5nm production, including the technology required to slice, grind and polish 300 mm diameter silicon wafers to certain standards, and Techniques to minimize flatness (or SFQR) and surface defects and localized light scatterers (LLS). Both types of technologies are subject to national security and anti-terrorism controls.
As we all know, the only company in the world that can produce EUV lithography machines is the Dutch ASML company, and ASML’s two largest shareholders, Capital International Group (MSCI) and BlackRock, Inc., are both American companies. Many of the high-precision technologies used to create EUV lithography machines are also held by the United States.
At this critical period, these two technologies are selected for export control. It is natural to say who the United States wants to restrict. From the current point of view, the impact of US export control on the Chinese market is huge. As one of the largest purchasers of US chip-related products, many domestic chip manufacturers have been greatly affected.
Restricting exports, harming others and not oneself
Although under the banner of “protecting the country’s key and emerging technologies”, the US export restrictions have actually adversely affected many parties. In addition to those subject to export control regulations, any U.S. business that designs, tests, manufactures, develops, produces, or manufactures any newly regulated product and accepts foreign investment must file a mandatory filing with the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS) , and may be subject to heavy penalties if mandatory filings are not filed.
The introduction of this control measure has also had a significant impact on the economic and technological development of the United States itself. According to a data released by the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation of the United States, some restrictive measures of the Technology Export Control Act may seriously hinder the competitiveness of U.S. advanced technology industries, limiting their output, exports, and hindering job growth. Just like when Huawei received the US sanctions and ban, many US chip manufacturers collectively requested to resume cooperation with Huawei. Strict control and censorship not only did not make the United States “stronger”, but even attracted a lot of opposition.