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Technical article: 4 categories and characteristics of embedded systems

Posted by: Yoyokuo 2022-07-18 Comments Off on Technical article: 4 categories and characteristics of embedded systems

As one of the mainstream systems, embedded system has its presence in every major industry. In order to improve everyone’s understanding of embedded systems, this article will introduce the classification of embedded systems and the characteristics of embedded systems. If you are interested in embedded systems, keep reading.

As one of the mainstream systems, embedded system has its presence in every major industry. In order to improve everyone’s understanding of embedded systems, this article will introduce the classification of embedded systems and the characteristics of embedded systems. If you are interested in embedded systems, keep reading.

Technical article: 4 categories and characteristics of embedded systems

First, the classification of embedded systems

Some people treat a single embedded microprocessor as an embedded system, which is wrong. Because the embedded system is essentially an embedded computer system, only when the embedded microprocessor constitutes a computer system and is used as an embedded application, such a computer system can be called an embedded system.

According to different classification standards, embedded systems have different classification methods. For example, according to the differences in their forms, embedded systems can generally be divided into: chip-level (MCU, SoC), board-level (MCU, module) and device-level (industrial control). machine) Level 3. According to the different levels of complexity, embedded systems can be divided into the following four categories:

(1) Embedded systems mainly composed of microprocessors, often used in small equipment (such as temperature sensors, smoke and gas detectors, and circuit breakers);

(2) Microprocessor devices without timing functions, which can be found in process control, signal amplifiers, position sensors, and valve actuators;

(3) components with timing functions, such systems are more common in switchgear, controllers, telephone exchanges, packaging machines, data acquisition systems, medical monitoring systems, diagnostic and real-time control systems, etc.;

(4) The computer system used in manufacturing or process control, which is the embedded computer system composed of the industrial computer level, is the most complex one of these four categories. It is also one that is often used in modern printing equipment.

Technical article: 4 categories and characteristics of embedded systems

Second, the characteristics of embedded systems

(1) Embedded system is the product of combining advanced computer technology, semiconductor technology and Electronic technology with specific applications in various industries. This determines that it must be a technology-intensive, capital-intensive, highly decentralized, and constantly innovative knowledge integration system. The embedded CPU can integrate many tasks completed by the board in the general CPU into the chip, which is conducive to the miniaturization of the embedded system design, the greatly enhanced mobility, and the tighter coupling with the network.

(2) Both the hardware and software of the embedded system must be designed efficiently, tailor-made, remove redundancy, and strive to achieve higher performance on the same silicon area, so that the selection of microprocessors can be more suitable for specific applications. competitive.

(3) The embedded system and the specific application are organically combined, and its upgrading is also carried out simultaneously with the specific product. Therefore, once the embedded system product enters the market, it has a long life cycle.

(4) High real-time system software (OS) is the basic requirement of embedded software. And software requires solid-state storage for speed; software code requires high quality and reliability.

(5) The embedded system itself does not have the capability of bootstrapping development, even after the design is completed, the user usually cannot modify the programs and functions in it. And there must be a set of development tools and environment to develop.

(6) Special purpose is strong. Because the embedded system is usually oriented to a specific application, the hardware and software of the embedded system, especially the software, are designed for a specific user group and usually have some special characteristics.

(7) The volume is miniaturized. The embedded computer integrates many tasks completed by the board in the general computer system into the chip, so as to facilitate the realization of miniaturization and facilitate the embedding of the embedded system into the target system.

(8) Good real-time performance. Embedded systems are widely used in production process control, data acquisition, transmission and communication, etc., and are mainly used to control host objects, so there are more or less real-time requirements for embedded systems. For example, the real-time requirements for embedded systems in weapons and control systems in some industrial control devices are extremely high. Some systems do not require very high real-time performance, for example, handheld computers that have developed rapidly in recent years. But in general, real-time performance is a common requirement for embedded systems, and it is an important indicator that designers and users should focus on.

(9) Good tailorability. From the perspective of the specificity of embedded systems, suppliers of embedded systems should provide a variety of hardware and software for alternative use, and strive to achieve higher performance on the same silicon area, so as to achieve specific more competitive in applications.

(10) High reliability. Because the computing tasks undertaken by some embedded systems involve the key quality of the controlled product, the safety of personal equipment, and even state secrets and other major affairs, and the host objects of some embedded systems work in unattended occasions, such as in high-risk situations monitoring devices in industrial environments and harsh field environments. Therefore, compared with ordinary systems, embedded systems have extremely high requirements for reliability.

(11) Low power consumption. The host object of many embedded systems is some small application systems, such as mobile phones, MP3, digital cameras, etc. These devices cannot be equipped with AC power or large capacity power, so low power consumption has always been the goal of embedded systems. .

(12) The embedded system itself does not have the ability of self-development, and must be developed with the help of a general-purpose computer platform. After the design of the embedded system is completed, ordinary users usually have no way to modify the program or hardware structure, and must have a set of development tools and environment to do so.

(13) The embedded system is usually realized by the method of “software and hardware co-design”. The early embedded system design method often adopted the “hardware first” principle, that is, under the condition of only rough estimation of the software task requirements, the hardware design and implementation are firstly carried out, and then the software design is carried out on the hardware platform. If the traditional design method is adopted, once a problem is found in the test and the design needs to be modified, the entire design process will be re-executed, which has a great impact on the cost and design cycle. The design of the system relies heavily on the experience of the designer. Since the 1990s, with the development of related technologies such as electronics and chips, the software-hardware co-design method has emerged in the design and implementation of embedded systems, that is, the use of unified methods and tools to describe, synthesize and verify software and hardware. Under the guidance of the system target requirements, through a comprehensive analysis of the system software and hardware functions and existing resources, the software and hardware architecture is co-designed to maximize the system software and hardware capabilities and avoid all kinds of problems caused by the independent design of the software and hardware architecture. The disadvantages are obtained, and an optimized design solution with high performance and low cost is obtained.

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